Anatomy of the knee
There are two jointsin the knee:
• Patellofemoral joint.
• Tibiofemoral joint (the joint that isusually referred to as 'the knee joint').
• Patella- the patellar tendon (also called patellar ligament) passes anteriorly to the patella. The medial retinaculum also gives support to the patella.
• Ligaments - stability to thetibiofemoral joint is provided by various ligaments:
• Anteriorcruciate ligament (ACL) - controls rotational movement and prevents forward movement of the tibia in relation to the femur. Runs between attachments on the front (hence, anterior cruciate) of the tibial plateau and the posterolateral aspect of the intercondylar notch of the femur.
• Posteriorcruciate ligament (PCL) - prevents forward sliding of the femur in relation to the tibial plateau. Runs between attachments on the posterior part (hence, posterior cruciate) of the tibial plateau and the medial aspect of the intercondylar notch of the femur.
• Medialcollateral ligament (MCL) - prevents lateral movement of the tibia on the femur when valgus (away from the midline) stress is placed on the knee. Runs between the medial epicondyle of the femur and the anteromedial aspect of the tibia. Also has a deep attachment to the medial meniscus.
• Lateralcollateral ligament (LCL) - prevents medial movement of the tibia on the femur when varus (towards the midline) stress is placed on the knee. Runs between the lateral epicondyle of the femur and head of the fibula.
• Menisci- the medial and lateral menisci are located within the knee joint, attached to the tibial plateau. They help to protect the articular surfaces by absorbing some of the forces transmitted through the knee. They also help to stabilise and lubricate the knee.
Causes of knee pain
Acute knee injury
· Knee cartilage injuries: medial or meniscal injury.
· Knee ligament injuries: medial collateral ligament (MCL),lateral collateral ligament (LCL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).
· Leg fractures and dislocations: knee fractures and dislocations, distal femoral fractures, proximal tibial and fibular fractures.
· Patellar tendon rupture.
Global knee pain
· Polyarthritis: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis.
· Crystal arthropathies:gout, pseudogout.
· Seronegativearthropathies, eg ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, enteropathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, Behçet's disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
· Infective causes:septic arthritis, osteomyelitis.
· Disease of bone around the knee: osteosarcoma: usually affects children. The most common site sare around the knee or proximal humerus. The most frequent presenting symptom of osteosarcoma is pain, especially with activity. See separate article Bone Tumours.
· Referred pain (usually from the hip).
· Rare causes, eg haemochromatosis, rheumatic fever, spontaneous haemarthrosis (may occur in coagulation disorders, especially haemophilia), familial Mediterranean fever.
Anterior knee pain
Common causes include:
· Patellofemoral painsyndrome (also known as chondromalacia patellae).
· Fat pad impingement:the infrapatellar fat pad is impinged between the patella and the femoral condyle due to a direct blow to the knee. Treatment includes patellar taping to relieve impingement.
· Patellofemoralinstability (or recurrent patellar subluxation): this is more common in females - patellar hypermobility with apprehension and pain when the patella is pushed laterally are found on examination. Treatment can include bracing and crutches to reduce weight-bearing. Exercises to strengthen the vastus medialis obliquus are needed. Surgery may be required if conservative management fails.
Other causes include:
· Referred pain from the hip, eg slipped upper (capital) femoral epiphysis, Perthes' disease.
· Bone tumour.
· Prepatellar bursitis or infrapatellar bursitis.
· Patellar stress fracture.
· Osgood-Schlatter disease.
· Sinding-LarsenJohansson disease.
Lateral knee pain
Common causes include:
· Iliotibial bandfriction syndrome: this occurs due to friction between the iliotibial band and the underlying lateral epicondyle of the femur. It produces lateral knee pain in cyclists, dancers, long-distance runners, football players, and military recruits. There is tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the femur 1-2 cm above the lateral joint line. Flexion/extension of the knee can reproduce symptoms. It is more likely with poor muscles, lax ligaments and poor training regimes. Treatment includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), massage, stretching, muscle strengthening and correction of predisposing factors (eg it is more common in downhill running). Steroid injection and surgery are rarely needed.
· Lateral meniscusproblem (tear, degeneration, cyst).
Other causes include:common peroneal nerve injury, patellofemoral syndrome, osteoarthritis, referred pain from the hip or the lumbar spine.
· Knee Cartilage Injuries (including Meniscal Tears)
· Knees That Swell
· Anterior Knee Pain
Medial knee pain
Common causes include:
· Patellofemoralsyndrome (see 'Anterior knee pain', above).
· Medial meniscusproblem (tear, degeneration, cyst).
Other causes include:tumour, referred pain from the hip or the lumbar spine, MCL injury, osteoarthritis.
Posterior knee pain
Common causes include:
· Knee joint effusion.
· Referred pain from the lumbar spine or patellofemoral joint.
Other causes include: Baker's cyst, deep vein thrombosis, peripheral vascular disease, PCL injury.
BIO POWER KNEE SUPPORT
Arthritis • sprains • deep tissue damage • ligament damage • sporting injuries
It is to cure the arthritic, cartilage and ligament problems. The placement of the therapeutic devices within the Bio Power knee support is specially designed to target those painful, inflamed areas. Some research suggests the inclusion of therapy devices into the supportive neoprene may help wounds heal up to 50% faster! Furthermore, with an opening strategically positioned to help center your knee,the Bio power knee support is fully adjustable for best fit, movement, support and relief. No wonder this therapy is so popular with professional and amateur athletes alike. It may help get them back on the field or onto the track faster.
- Ideal for those suffering from arthritis, ligament or deep tissue damage, sprains or sporting injuries.
- Helps improve peripheral circulation and promote the body's natural healing process.
- Soft and comfortable neoprene promotes natural heat release.
- Helps compress and support the injured area.
- Elastic stretch for comfort.
- Easy-close tabs for quick attachment and release.
- Lightweight and undetectable under most clothing.
- Available in one color: black
- Ideal for men and women.
- Hand washable.
- One size fits all.
BIO Power knee support
Knee support with therapy devices
BIO power Knee Support incorporates some of the advantages of the original Knee Strap plus the added benefits of further strengthening the kneecap mechanism by applying pressure on the tendon above the kneecap as well.
With inside therapy devices of dia 10x2 mm
Made of the highest grade neoprene, covered with stretch nylon on both sides for compression and heat retention
BIO power Knee support provide a therapeutic treatment to muscle and joint pain or injury. Its adjustable Velcro strap insures comfortable fit and stabilization.
Neoprene is a stretchable, flexible and comfortable material, that holds heat in but lets moisture (sweat) out. You not only look good wearing them, but they also make you feel better by relieving muscular tension and fatigue through increased blood circulation as observed by clinical tests.
Soft and comfortable stretch cotton provides firm support. Strategically placed therapy devices provide continuous therapy. They are designed for a close fit so you are able to wear them under any type of clothing. Because of the cosy and snug fit it is tempting to keep these on for long periods of time, thus allowing the therapy devices to do their work.
If you experience itching or rashes, please discontinue use.
People who should avoid therapy are:
* pregnant women
* people who wear pacemakers
* people who wear electronic devices
* people who wear electrically operated devices.